Michael A. Jacobs, MD Orthopedic Surgeon
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Good Samaritan Hospital
Michael A. Jacobs, MD Orthopedic Surgeon
Michael A. Jacobs, MD Orthopedic Surgeon  
 
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Knee

The knee joint, which appears like a simple hinge-joint, is one of the most complex joints in the body.

The knee joint is made up of the femur (thigh bone), tibia (lower leg bone) and patella (the kneecap). All these bones are lined with articular cartilage (surface cartilage). This articular cartilage acts like a shock absorber and allows a smooth, low friction surface for the knee to move on. Between the tibia and femur lie two floating cartilages called menisci. The medial (inner) meniscus and the lateral (outer) meniscus rest on the tibial surface cartilage and are mobile. The menisci also act as shock absorbers and stabilizers. The knee is stabilized by ligaments that are both inside and outside the joint. The medial and lateral collateral ligaments support the knee from excessive side to side movement. The (internal) anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments support the knee from buckling and giving way. The knee joint is surrounded by a capsule (envelope) that produces a small amount of synovial (lubricating) fluid to help with smooth motion. Thigh muscles are important secondary knee stabilizers.


Knee Anatomy :: Knee Arthroscopy
ACL Reconstruction :: Total Knee Replacement
Uniknee Replacement :: Revision Knee Replacement

Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint

How does the Knee joint work?
Find out more in this web based movie.

Knee Anatomy


Arthroscopy of the Knee Joint

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine.

The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

Find out more about Knee Arthroscopy from the following links.

Knee Arthroscopy
Knee Arthroscopy
Knee Arthroscopy

Total Knee Replacement (TKR)

A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces an arthritic knee joint with an artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses'.

Find out more about Total Knee Replacement with the following links.

Total Knee Replacement
Total Knee Replacement


Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL Reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the centre of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn't heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incisions and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction Hamstring Tendon


ACL Reconstruction

ACL Reconstruction Patellar Tendon


ACL Reconstruction


Uni Condylar Knee Replacement

This simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement. The knee joint is made up of 3 compartments, the patellofemoral and medial and lateral compartments between the femur and tibia (i.e. the long bones of the leg). Often only one of these compartments wears out, usually the medial one. If you have symptoms and X-ray findings suggestive of this then you may be suitable for this procedure.

Find out more about Unicondylar Knee Replacement with the following links.





Revision Knee Replacement

This means that part or all of your previous knee replacement needs to be revised. This operation varies from very minor adjustments to massive operations replacing significant amounts of bone and hence is difficult to describe in full.

Find out more about Revision Knee Replacement with the following links.




Please use the links below to get more information from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons:

Broken Bones and Injury

Common Knee Injuries
Hamstring Muscle Strain
Muscle Strains in the Thigh

Fractures

Femur (Thighbone) Fractures in Adults
Femur (Thighbone) Fractures in Children Growth Plate Fractures Proximal Tibia Fractures
Shinbone (Tibia) Fractures
Stress Fractures

Tears and Instability

Kneecap, Unstable
Ligament Injuries of the Knee
Meniscus, Tears of
Posterior Cruciate Ligament, Tears of

Pain Syndromes

Osgood-Schlatter Disease (Knee Pain)
Runner's Knee (Patellofemoral Pain)
Shin Splints

Diseases and Syndromes

Bowed Legs
Bursitis of the Knee: Goosefoot (Pes Anserine)
Bursitis of the Knee: Kneecap (Prepatellar)
Limb Length Discrepency
Osteonecrosis of the Knee

Arthritis

Arthritis of the Knee
Osteoarthritis of Knee -- Social Impact
Osteoarthritis of the Knee - Frequently Asked Questions

Pain Syndromes

Burning Thigh Pain (Meralgia paresthetica)
Compartment Syndrome
Knee Pain, Adolescent Anterior
Osgood-Schlatter Disease (Knee Pain)
Runner's Knee (Patellofemoral Pain)

Treatment and Rehabilitation

Osteoarthritis: Surgical Treatment

Joint Replacement

Anesthesia for Hip and Knee Replacement Surgery
Knee Replacement and Implants
Knee Replacement, Cemented and Cementless
Knee Replacement, Minimally Invasive
Knee Replacement, Osteotomy and Unicompartmental Replacement (Arthroplasty)
Total Knee Replacement

Nonsurgical Treatment

Care of Casts and Splints
How to use Crutches, Canes, and Walkers
Viscosupplementation in Osteoarthritis of the Knee

Arthroscopy and Reconstruction

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, Surgical Considerations in
Knee Arthroscopy
Meniscal Transplants

Considerations

Deep Vein Thrombosis

Postoperative Care

Knee Arthroscopy, Exercise Guide
Knee Replacement - Exercise Guide
Knee Replacement, Activities After

Dr. Michael A. Jacobs Orthopedic Surgeon
Dr. Derek Papp Orthopedic Surgeon
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